Table of Contents
Test 1 – March 12, 2023 Environment + Current Affairs (July-August) + Himachal (Environment)
Functions of an Ecosystem: Energy Flow, Food chain, Food web, Ecological Pyramids, Pollutant and trophic levels, Biotic Interaction, Bio-geo-chemical cycle, Ecological succession
Ecosystems: Terrestrial, Aquatic and their associated biodiversity
Climate Change: Factors affecting climate change,Global warming, Greenhouse effect, Greenhouse gases, Impact of climate change and its mitigation, International organizations, conventions related to Climate change
India and Climate change: National Action plan on climate change, INDCs, Panchamrit (COP 26), Energy conservation building code, Biofuels, Hydrogen mission, FAME-India scheme, NAFCC
Acts and Policies in India: Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, Environment Protection act, 1986, Biodiversity Act 2002, Forest Rights Act 2006 etc
Environmental Organizations: Animal Welfare Board of India, Central Zoo Authority, National Biodiversity Authority, National Ganga River Basin authority etc
International Organizations : UNEP, Ramsar convention on wetlands, CITES, TRAFFIC, Basel convention, Rotterdam convention, Stockholm convention, UNCCD etc
Climate change organizations and conventions: UNFCCC, Vienna convention ,Kyoto Protocol, IPCC, REDD & REDD+ etc
Pollution: Air Pollution, Marine Pollution, Noise Pollution, Land Degradation (Desertification, Soil erosion), Radioactive pollution,Bioremediation, Acid Rain,combating pollution
Ozone Depletion : Causes, impact on life, conventions, agreements, treaties
Renewable Energy : Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Hydro Power, Ocean Thermal energy, Geothermal energy
Nuclear Energy : location of nuclear plants in India, reactors, moderators etc
Conservation efforts in India: Project Tiger, Project Elephant, Project Snow Leopard etc
Biosphere: Extent of Biosphere, Biomes, Indian Biomes, Major Biomes of the World
Biodiversity : Types, Threats to Biodiversity
Biodiversity Conservation: Conservation Strategies, IUCN Classification, National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves
- Current Affairs (July-August)
- Himachal Pradesh Environment
Test 2 – March 19, 2023 Economics + Current Affairs (September- October) + Himachal (Economics)
1) Basic concepts of economy:
Macroeconomics – growth, unemployment, poverty, etc.
Microeconomics – behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of resources.
Type of economic systems – capitalist, socialist and mixed- which system India adopted and why.
Sectors of economy- primary, secondary and tertiary- their composition and contribution to GDP and Employment.
National income accounting – GDP,GNP,GNI,GVA, factor cost, market cost, extra – understanding how they are calculated and factors considered and recent changes in national income accounting methods of India.
2)Growth and development
Difference between growth and development – qualitative vs. quantitative.
Development indicators-HDI (human Development Index), GNH (gross national happiness), MPI (multidimensional poverty index), Gini coefficient, etc.
Poverty – related terms like below poverty line (BPL), above poverty line (APL)
Antyodaya, committees criteria/ methodology to measure poverty- Alag committee, Lakdawala, Suresh Tendulkar committee, N.C. Saxena committee, Rangarajan committee.
Unemployment – types and meaning.
Demographics and demographic dividend- study of Indian population based on function such as age,race,sex, economic status, level of education, income level and employment(census 2011).
General awareness of Sustainable development goals and where success and failure achieving them.
Financial inclusion- meaning, government initiatives, recommendation of Nachiket Mor committee, etc
3) Economic planning
Type of planning – directive and indicative
General understanding of changing nature of five year planning in India- plan 1 to 12- objectives and shifts(e.g. Directive to integrative)
Salient features of 12th Five Year Plan- objective, targets, programmes, etc.
4) Inflation and business cycle
Understanding business cycle: Growth-recession-depression-recovery.
Inflation and related terms like deflation, disinflation, reflation, stagflation, Phillips curve.
Causes of inflation: Demand pull, cost push, structural, speculation.
Impact of inflation on different sections of the economy – poor, rich, debtor, creditor, etc.
Measuring inflation: CPI, WPI, GDP deflator- composition, calculation methodology, differences, etc.
Role of government and RBI in controlling inflation.
5) Indian financial market
General understanding of money market and capital market and related terms – treasury bills, certificate of deposits, mutual funds, venture capital fund, participatory notes, etc.
General understanding of – foreign direct investment, foreign institutional investor and qualified institutional placement (angel investor, venture capital, foreign institutional investors, mutual funds, Public Financial Institutions).
6) Money and banking systems
Types of banks – commercial banks, regional rural banks (RRB), development banks, cooperative banks, merchant banks, non banking companies (NBFCs)etc- meaning and function.
Understanding high powered money, money supply and related terms:M1,M2,M3,M4.
RBI: Role and functions: Monetary policy: Bank rate, repo rate, reverse repo rate, statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) liquidity adjustment facility (LAF), marginal standing Facility (MSF), base rate – basic understanding about these terms – meaning, how they work, how the impact economy (money supply),etc.
Understanding banking related terms: Non performing assets, core banking, priority sector lending, capital to risk weighted assets(CRAR), etc.
Banking reforms- since Bank nationalization to BASEL reforms.Gyan Sangam
New committee set up and their key recommendations.E.g. PJ Nayak committee on Bank governance, Urjit Patel committee on monetary policy, etc.
7) Fiscal Policy:
Deficit fiscal policy-why it is adopted.
Budgeting- understanding all budget related terms – revenue and capital receipts and expenditure, plan and non plan expenditure, public debt, external debt, internal debt, revenue deficit, effective revenue deficit, primary deficit, deficit financing, zero based budgeting, etc.
Fiscal consolidation measures: Disinvestment of PSU, FRBM act, etc.
Reforms in banking, insurance, provident fund (PF), etc
Taxation : Understanding direct and indirect taxation and related terms- taxbase, progressive taxation, tax expenditure, tax avoidance, tax evasion, tax havens, elasticity, tax buoyancy, classical and crowding out.
Tax reforms: Goods and service tax (GST), general anti-avoidance rule (GAAR), E- filing of tax returns, etc.
Balance of payment(BoP): Current and capital account, causes and impact of current account deficit.
Currency exchange rate: general understanding of terms / concepts – fixed / floating / managed currency regime, appreciation, depreciation, devaluation, convertibility, nominal effective exchange rate, real effective exchange rate, hard currency, soft currency etc.
Rupee appreciation / depreciation mechanism / impact on import / export and current account deficit
- Current Affairs (September- October)
- Himachal Pradesh Economics
Test 3 – March 26, 2023 Polity I + Current Affairs (November-December) + Himachal (Polity)
1) Historical background scores and constitutional development from Regulation Act 1773 to Indian Independence Act of 1947.
2) Making of the constitution: Cabinet mission plan, constituent assembly-mode of its election, composition and functions, salient features of articles, parts and schedules, source of the constitution- borrowed features, etc
3) Preamble: Nehru’s objective resolution, philosophy of the constitution, objectives, ideal – justice Liberty equality fraternity etc, judicial interpretation and scholastic comments.
4) Union and its territory: Union of states and territory of India, article 1 to 4- provisions regarding reorganization of States.
5) Citizenship: Reasons regarding acquisition and termination of citizenship, NRI ,PIO ,OCI, recent changes related to these terms(merged),NRC.
6) Fundamental rights: broader understanding of all FR- salient provisions, significance, reasonable restriction,Right to privacy etc, Writs, difference between FR and DPSP.
7) Fundamental duties: 42nd constitutional amendment, Swaran Singh committee and Verma committee recommendations, basic awareness of duties.
8) Directive principle of state policy(DPSP): Socialistic, Gandhian, liberal intellectual principles, significance, debate over Supremacy between FR and DPSP.
9) Amendment to the constitution: Provisions, basic structure doctrine, landmark amendments
- Himachal Pradesh Polity
- Current Affairs (November- December)
Test 4 – April 2, 2023 Polity II + Current Affairs (Jan- Feb) + Himachal (Polity)
10) Union government: Provisions (election / appointment, powers, functions, removal) related to Union executive- President, vice president, prime Minister, council of Ministers.
11) Parliament composition, election, power Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha and similarities and dissimilarities between the two houses, provision related to chairperson and Deputy Chairperson of the house, parliamentary proceedings, motions, bill, budgetary provisions, parliamentary committees, etc
12) State executive and state legislature: similarities between Union and State provisions with special focus on Institution of governor.
13) Judicial system: Supreme Court, high Court and subordinate Court provisions – appointment, removal of judges, powers of courts, difference between Supreme Court and high court.
14) Administration of UT, scheduled areas and tribal areas.
15) Centre state relations legislative administrative and financial, interest rate relation, federal and unitary features of the Constitution.
16) Constitutional and non-constitutional bodies: Related to appointment, composition, power, function and removal.
B) Panchayati Raj: Objectives, development from Balwant Rai Mehta committee to 73rd and 74th amendment, salient provisions of 73rd and 74th amendment share, powers, functions.
C) Public policy: Important or recently launched schemes,, programs missions, policies, laws, bills, etc.
D) rights issues: Who is related to the rights and welfare of vulnerable and weaker sections of society – women, children, old age population, differently abled, SC,ST, minorities, LGBTQ. It was a legal right to suggest consumer rights, information, right to food, way to work, etc.
- Himachal Pradesh Polity
- Current Affairs (January – February)
Test 5 – April 9, 2023 History I + Current Affairs(March- till Date) + Himachal (History)
- Prehistoric cultures in India
- Indus Civilization – Origins- the different phases- society, economy, and culture- Contacts with other cultures- factors lead to the decline.
- Geographical distribution and characteristics of pastoral and farming society.
- Vedic society-Vedic texts- change from Rigvedic to later Vedic phases.
- Vedic society Religion- Upanishad thought-Political and social organization, the evolution of the Varna system and monarchy.
- Formation of the State and urbanization, from the Mahajanapadas to the Nandas.
- Buddhism and Jainism- Factors for the spread of Buddhism.
- The Mauryan Empire- Chandragupta and Megasthenes.
- Asoka and his inscriptions, his dhamma, culture, administration, and art
- Society of Post-Mauryan India, BC 200- AD 300- Evolution of Jatis.
- The Satavahanas and formation of the state in the Peninsula.
- Sangam texts and society.
- Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Parthians, Kushans, Kanishka-Contacts with the outer world.
- Different Religion- Bhagavatism, Saivism, Mahayana Buddhism and Hinayana, Jainism and Culture and art.
- The Guptas and their descendants.
- Literature Science, Arts, Economy, and society -Modification in the political organization of empire.
Modern History I:Till 1905
Advent of Europeans in India: Portuguese in India, Dutch, Danes, English, French, Anglo-French Rivalry, Carnatic Wars, Causes of English success, Rise of regional states
British Expansion in India: Bengal, Anglo-Maratha wars, Systems: Subsidiary Alliance system, Doctrine of Lapse etc, Wars: Anglo-Sikh wars, Anglo-Afghan wars etc
Administration before 1857: Dual system, Charter Acts, Administrative & Judicial Systems
Economic Policies of British: Phases : Mercantilism(1757-1813), Free Trade(1813-1858),Financial Imperialism(1858 onwards), Land revenue Policies (Permanent settlement, Ryotwari, Mahalwari), Drain of Wealth theory
Impact of British Administration: Industrialization: Impact on Artisans, Handicrafts, Peasantry etc, Commercialization of Agriculture, Development of Modern Industry, Economic drain, Nationalist critique of colonial economy
The Revolt of 1857: Causes of revolt (Political, Economic etc), Centres and spread of revolt, Leaders of revolt, causes of failure of revolt, consequences of revolt
Development of civil services: Indian civil services act 1861, Aitchison committee, Lee Commission etc
Development of Education: Charter Acts, Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, Macaulay’s Minute, Woods Dispatch, Hunter commission, Indian Universities act, 1904 etc
Famines in India : Major famines during British Rule, Famine Commissions
Revolutionary Nationalism: Early phase of Indian National Congress, Moderate Phase(1885-1905), Extremist movement(1905-1920): Leaders, revolutionary activities, reasons for failure
- Current Affairs ( March – till date)
- Himachal Pradesh History
Test 6 – April 16, 2023 History II + Current Affairs (till Date)+ Himachal (History)
- Early Medieval India. Major dynasties; Political and Agrarian organization. Status of women, Extent of social mobility. The Arabs in Sind and the Ghaznavids.
- Cultural trends, 750-1200, Religious circumstances: the significance of temples and monastic institutions; Sankaracharya; Islam; Sufism. Art and architecture. Literature and Science.
- 13th and 14th Centuries: Ghorian invasions reasons and consequences. Delhi Sultanate under the Slave Rulers. Aladdin Khalji: invasion; administrative, agrarian and economic measures. Muhammad Tughlug’s innovations. Firuz Tughluq and the decline of the Delhi Sultanate. Development of urbanization and commerce. Spiritual movements in Hinduism and Islam. Literature. Architecture, Technological changes.
- The 15th and early 16th Century: Key Provincial dynasties; Vijayanagara Empire. The Lodhis, First stage of the Mughal Empire: The Sur Empire and administration. Monotheistic movements: Kabir; Guru Nanak and Sikhism; Bhakti. The spread of regional literature. Art and Culture.
- The Mughal Empire, Akbar: invasion, administrative measures, Policy of Sulh-I-Kul. Jagir and Mansab systems; Jahangir, Shahjahan, and Aurangzeb: extension of Mughal empire in the Deccan; religious policies. Shivaji. Persian and regional literature. Religious idea: Abul Fazl; Maharashtra dharma. Architecture. Painting. Economy: state of affairs of peasants and artisans, escalation in trade; trade with Europe. Social stratification and position of women.
- The decline of the Mughal Empire, Reason behind the decline. Maratha power under the Peshwas. The Afghans. Regional states. Most important components of composite culture. Sawai Jai Singh, astronomer. The rise of Urdu language.
Modern History II :1905 Onwards
Indian National Movement I(1905-1918): Partition of Bengal, Swadeshi Movement, Muslim League, Surat Session 1907, Indian Council Act 1909, Ghadar Party, Komagata Maru Incident, Lucknow pact, Home rule movement, August Declaration
Indian National Movement II (1918-1929): World War I, Champaran Satyagraha, Ahmedabad Mill strike, Kheda Satyagraha, Government of India Act 1919, Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, Khilafat Movement, Non-Cooperation movement, Nagpur Session, Swaraj party formation, Simon Commission etc.
Indian National Movement III (1930- 1947) : Civil Disobedience movement, Round table conferences, Gandhi Irwin Pact etc till Indian Independence Act 1947
Governor Generals during British India : Governor of Bengal( before 1773), Governor Generals during Bengal(1773-1833), Governor Generals of India (1832-1858), Viceroys and Governor Generals of India(1858-1947)
- Current Affairs (Till date)
- Himachal Pradesh History
Test 7 – April 23, 2023 Geography I + Current Affairs (till Date) + Himachal (Geography)
1) Earth and the universe- the solar system, planets and their natural satellites, meteors, asteroids, comets, rotation and revolution of Earth, basics of latitude, longitude, solar eclipse, lunar eclipse etc.
2) Geomorphology- origin and evolution of the earth crust, physical conditions of the earth’s interior, endogenetic and exogenetic forces, weathering, mass movement, basic understanding of landforms like valley, meanders, deltas, caves, glacier, cliffs, terraces, dunes, continental drift, sea floor spreading, plate tectonics, vulcanicity and earthquake and Tsunami.
3) Climatology- atmosphere, heat budget of the earth, pressure belts, planetary and local winds, jet streams, air masses and frontogenesis, temperate and tropical cyclones, Greenhouse effect and Global Warming and salient features of world climate.
4) Oceanography- Temperature and salinity of oceans, currents and tides, coral reefs, coral bleaching and sea level changes.
5) Biogeography- genesis of soils, classification and distribution of soils(Indian context), soil erosion, degradation and conservation.
C) World geography
Mapping related to latitude and longitude – meridian, states/ cities through which Meridian passes, classification of earth into zones – equatorial, tropical, temperate and polar and locating climatic regions in these zones.
Oceans, major lakes, major rivers.
Continents, important Islands, major mountains
Countries, their capitals and strategic locations.
Earthquake, volcano region
Locations in news- recent disaster affected region, politically a disputed region(south China Sea), regions where a major summit on conference took place, conflict ridden regions like the Middle East, Syria etc.
GC leong weather climate and vegetation: Location, climate, vegetation, plant species, soil, agriculture, economic development, social life.
- Himachal Pradesh Geography
- Current Affairs (Till date)
Test 8 – April 30, 2023 Geography II + Current Affairs (till Date) + Himachal (Geography)
1) Indian physiography- The Himalayas, peninsular plateau, the northern plains and the coastal plains, deserts, islands.
Following aspects associated with above feature need to be studied: Location (also remember important places in the region);Causes of origin ;Characteristics of each ;physiographic feature ;Drainage system ;Climate (temperature, rainfall, wind pattern) ;Biogeography- soil, wildlife, forest etc; Resources
2) Indian monsoon and associated phenomena – El Nino and LA Nina, median Julian oscillations, Indian ocean dipole, rainfall patterns in India, tropical cyclone and western disturbances, food and drought and climatic regions.
3) Resources- land surface and groundwater, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources.
4) Agriculture: Cropping pattern, climatic conditions suitable for crops growth, irrigation methods, revolutions (white-milk, blue-fish,yellow etc), sericulture, apiculture, farming methods- subsistence farming, intensive farming, shifting cultivation, mixed farming, terrace cultivation, commercial farming, etc.
5) Cultural aspects: Distribution and density of population, Demographic attributes: Sex ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work force, dependency ratio, longevity, migration etc.
6) Hazards: Landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, flood and drought, desertification and soil erosion, etc
7) Mapping: Longitudinal and latitudinal extent of India- east west and north south distance, states at extreme ends, Border States, coastal states, etc
Locating States, capital cities, rivers etc on / near Tropic of Cancer.
Important mountains / peaks (Himalayan/ peninsular)
Plateaus and Plains
Major rivers and their tributaries, dams, reservoirs, hot Springs, etc.
Passes (border areas, strategic regions etc)
National highways NH1 to NH10, NH connecting important cities, NH along the border, etc.
National waterways, major ports,
Distribution of climatic regions, crops, forest, precipitation, soil and protected areas
Places which were recently in the news.
- Himachal Pradesh Geography
- Current Affairs (Till date)