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UPSC question paper – 2016-2020 – Issues on Environment, Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change

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PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTION PAPERS

UPSC previous year question paper of subject Issues on Environment, Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change from the year 2016-2020 with answers.

Contents

Results

#1. In rural road construction, the use of which of the following is preferred for ensuring environmental sustainability or to reduce carbon footprint ? [2020-I] 1. Copper slag 2. Cold mix asphalt technology 3. Geotextiles 4. Hot mix asphalt technology 5. Portland cement Select the correct answer using the code given below

#2. Which of the following are the most likely places to find the musk deer in its natural habitat ? [2020-I] 1. Askot Wildlife Sanctuary 2. Gangotri National Park 3. Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary 4. Manas National Park Select the correct answer using the code given below

#3. Which one of the following protected areas is well- known for the conservation of a sub-species of the Indian swamp deer (Barasinga) that thrives well in hard ground and is exclusively graminivorous? [2020-I]

#4. With reference to India’s biodiversity, Ceylon frogmouth, Coppersmith barbet, Gray-chinned minivet and White- throated redstart are [2020-I]

#5. Which of the following Protected Areas are located in Cauvery basin ? [2020-I] 1. Nagarhole National park 2. Papikonda National park 3. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve 4. Wayanad Wildlife sanctuary Select the correct answer using the code given below :

#6. With reference to Indian elephants, consider the following statements : [2020-I] 1. The leader of an elephant group is a female 2. The maximum gestation period can be 22 months. 3. An elephant can normally go on calving till the age of 40 years only. 4. Among the States in India, the highest elephant population is in Kerala. Which of the statements given above is/ are correct ?

#7. In the context of India, which of the following is/are considered to be practice(s) of eco-friendly agriculture? 1. Crop divers3. Tensiometer use 4. Vertical farming Select the correct answer using the code given 3. Tensiometer use 4. Vertical farming Select the correct answer using the code given below: [2020-I] 2. Legume intensification

#8. Which one of the following statements best describes the term ‘Social Cost of Carbon’? It is a measure, in monetary value, of the [2020-I]

#9. If a particular plant species is placed under Schedule VI of The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, what is the implication? [2020-I]

#10. Among the following Tiger Reserves, which one has the largest area under “Critical Tiger Habitat”? [2020-I]

#11. Consider the following statements: [2020] 1. 36% of India’s districts are classified as “overexploited” or “critical” by the Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA). 2. CGWA was formed under the Environment (Protection) Act. 3. India has the largest area under groundwater irrigation in the world. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

#12. With reference to India’s Desert National Park, which of the following statements are correct? [2020-I] 1. It is spread over two districts. 2. There is no human habitation inside the Park. 3. It is one of the natural habitats of the Great Indian Bustard. Select the correct answer using the code given below;

#13. Which of the following are the reasons/factors for exposure to benzene pollution ? [2020-I]1. Automobile exhaust 2. Tobacco smoke 3. Wood burning 4. Using varnished wooden furniture 5. Using products made of polyurethane Select the correct answer using the code given below :

#14. Consider the following statements: [2019-I] 1. Agricultural soils release nitrogen oxides into environment. 2. Cattle release ammonia into environment. 3. Poultry industry release reactive nitrogen compounds into environment. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

#15. Consider the following: [2019-I] 1. Carbon monoxide 2. Methane 3. Ozone 4. Sulphur dioxide Which of the above are released into the atmosphere due to the burning of crop/biomass residue?

#16. Which of the following statements are correct about the deposits of methane hydrate? 1. Global warming might trigger the release of methane gas from these deposits 2. Large deposits of ‘methane hydrate’ are found in Arctic Tundra and under the seafloor. 3. Methane in atmosphere oxidizes to carbon dioxide after a decade or two. Select the correct answer using the code given below:

#17. Why is there a great concern about the microbeads that are released into environment? [2019-I]

#18. Consider the following pairs : [2019-I] Wildlife: Naturally found in 1. Blue finned mahseer : Cauvery river 2. Irrawaddy dolphin : Chambal river 3. Rusty spotted cats : Eastern ghats Which one of the pair given above are correctly matched?

#19. Which one of the following are Agasthyamala biosphere reserve? [2019-I]

#20. In the context of which of the following do some scientists suggest the use of cirrus cloud thinning technique and the injection of sulphate aerosol into stratosphere? [2019-I]

#21. Consider the following statements: [2019-I] 1. Asiatic lion naturally found in India only 2. Double-humped camel is naturally found in India only 3. One-horned rhinoceros is naturally found in India only Which one of the statement given above is/are correct?

#22. Which one of the following national parks lies completely in the Temperate alpine zone? [2019-I]

#23. "Momentum for Change : Climate Neutral Now" is an initiative launched by [2018-I]

#24. The Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE), a UN mechanism to assist countries transition towards greener and more inclusive economies, emerged at [2018-I]

#25. In which one of the following States is Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary located? [2018-I]

#26. Consider the following statements: [2018-I] 1. The definition of "Critical Wildlife Habitat" is incorporated in the Forest Rights Act, 2006. 2. For the first time in India, Baigas have been given Habitat Rights. 3. Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change officially decides and declares Habitat Rights for Primitive and Vulnerable Tribal Groups in any part of Indi(a) Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

#27. How is the National Green Tribunal (NGT) different from the Central Pollution Control Board [2018-I] 1. The NGT has been established by an Act whereas the CPCB has been created by an executive order of the Government. 2. The NGT provides environmental justice and helps reduce the burden of litigation in the higher courts whereas the CPCB promotes cleanliness of streams and wells, and aims to improve the quality of air in the country. Which of the statements given above is/are correct:

#28. The term "sixth mass extinction/sixth extinction" is often mentioned in the news in the context of the discussion of [2018]

#29. Which of the following statements best describes "carbon fertilization"? [2018]

#30. Why is a plant called Prosopis juliflora often mentioned in news ? [2018-I]

#31. Consider the following statements: [2017-I] 1. Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) to reduce Short Lived Climate Pollutants is a unique initiative of G20 group of countries. 2. The CCAC focuses on methane, black carbon and hydrofluorocarbons. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

#32. With reference to 'Global Climate Change Alliance', which of the following statements is/are correct? [2017-I] 1. It is an initiative of the European Union. 2. It provides technical and financial support to targeted developing countries to integrate climate change into their development policies and budgets. 3. It is coordinated by World Resources Institute (WRI) and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). Select the correct answer using the code given below:

#33. It is possible to produce algae based biofuels, but what is/are the likely limitation(s) of developing countries in promoting this industry? [2017-I] 1. Production of algae based biofuels is possible in seas only and not on continents. 2. Setting up and engineering the algae based biofuel production requires high level of expertise/technology until the construction is completed. 3. Economically viable production necessitates the setting up of large scale facilities which may raise ecological and social concerns. Select the correct answer using the code given below:

#34. In the context of mitigating the impending global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, which of the following can be the potential sites for carbon sequestration? [2017-I] 1. Abandoned and uneconomic coal seams 2. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs 3. Subterranean deep saline formations Select the correct answer using the code given below:

#35. In the context of solving pollution problems, what is/are the advantage/advantages of bioremediation technique? [2017-I] 1. It is a technique for cleaning up pollution by enhancing the same biodegradation process that occurs in nature. 2. Any contaminant with heavy metals such as cadmium and lead can be readily and completely treated by bioremediation using micro-organisms. 3. Genetic engineering can be used to create microorganisms specifically designed for bioremediation. Select the correct answer using the code given below:

#36. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a standard criterion for[2017]

#37. Due to some reasons, if there is a huge fall in the population of species of butterflies, what could be its likely consequence/consequences? [2017-I] 1. Pollination of some plants could be adversely affected. 2. There could be a drastic increase in the fungal infections of some cultivated plants. 3. It could lead to a fall in the population of some species of wasps, spiders and birds. Select the correct answer using the code given below:

#38. Consider the following statements in respect of Trade Related Analysis of Fauna and Flora in Commerce (TRAFFIC): [2017] 1. TRAFFIC is a bureau under United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 2. The mission of TRAFFIC is to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature. Which of the above statements is/are correct?

#39. From the ecological point of view, which one of the following assumes importance in being a good link between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats?

#40. If you want to see gharials in their natural habitat, which one of the following is the best place to visit?(2017)

#41. According to the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, which of the following animals cannot be hunted by any person except under some provisions provided by law? [2017] 1. Gharial 2. Indian wild ass 3. Wild buffalo Select the correct answer using the code given below:

#42. In India, if a species of tortoise is declared protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, what does it imply ? [2017]

#43. Recently there was a proposal to translocate some of the lions from their natural habitat in Gujarat to which one of the following sites ? [2017]

#44. The term M-STRIPES' is sometimes seen in the news in the context of [2017]

#45. With reference to ‘Red Sanders’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements: [2016-I] 1. It is a tree species found in a part of South India. 2. It is one of the most important trees in the tropical rain forest areas of South India. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

#46. Recently, our scientists have discovered a new and distinct species of banana plant which attains a height of about 11 metres and has orange-coloured fruit pulp. In which part of India has it been discovered? [2016]

#47. What is/are unique about ‘Kharai camel’, a breed found in India? [2016] 1. It is capable of swimming up to three kilometers in seawater. 2. It survives by grazing on mangroves. 3. It lives in the wild and cannot be domesticated. Select the correct answer using the code given below.

#48. Which of the following are the key features of ‘National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)’? [2016] 1. River basin is the unit of planning and management. 2. It spearheads the river conservation efforts at the national level. 3. One of the Chief Ministers of the States through which the Ganga flows becomes the Chairman of NGRBA on rotation basis. Select the correct answer using the code given Below.

#49. In the cities of our country, which among the following atmospheric gases are normally considered in calculating the value of Air Quality Index? [2016] 1. Carbon dioxide 2. Carbon monoxide 3. Nitrogen dioxide 4. Sulfur dioxide 5. Methane Select the correct answer using the code given below.

#50. On which of the following can you find the Bureau of Energy Efficiency Star Label? [2016] 1. Ceiling fans 2. Electric geysers 3. Tubular fluorescent lamps Select the correct answer using the code given below.

#51. ‘Gadgil Committee Report’ and ‘Kasturirangan Committee Report’, sometimes seen in the news, are related to[2016]

#52. ‘Net metering’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of promoting the [2016]

#53. Which of the following best describes/ describe the aim of ‘Green India Mission’ of the Government of India? [2016] 1. Incorporating environmental benefits and costs into the Union and State Budgets thereby implementing the ‘green accounting’ 2. Launching the second green revolution to enhance agricultural output so as to ensure food security to one and all in the future 3. Restoring and enhancing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures Select the correct answer using the code given below.

#54. What is/are the importance/importances of the ‘United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification’? [2016-I] 1. It aims to promote effective action through innovative national programs and supportive inter-national partnerships. 2. It has a special/particular focus on South Asia and North Africa regions, and its Secretariat facilitates the allocation of major portion of financial resources to these regions. 3. It is committed to bottom-up approach, encouraging the participation of local people in combating the desertification. Select the correct answer using the code given below.

#55. The term ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contributions’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of [2016]

#56. Consider the following statements: [2016] 1. The Sustainable Development Goals were first proposed in 1972 by a global think tank called the ‘Club of Rome’. 2. The Sustainable Development Goals have to be achieved by 2030. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

#57. With reference to the Agreement at the UNFCCC Meeting in Paris in 2015, which of the following statements is/are correct? [2016-I] 1. The Agreement was signed by all the member countries of the UN and it will go into effect in 2017. 2. The Agreement aims to limit the greenhouse gas emissions so that the rise in average global temperature by the end of this century does not exceed 2 °C or even 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. 3. Developed countries acknowledged their historical responsibility in global warming and committed to donate $ 1000 billion a year from 2020 to help developing countries to cope with climate change. Select the correct answer using the code given below.

#58. Consider the following statements: [2016] (1) The International Solar Alliance was launched at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in 2015. (2) The Alliance includes all the member countries of the United Nations. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

#59. With reference to ‘Agenda 21’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements : [2016] 1. It is a global action plan for sustainable development 2. It originated in the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

#60. What is ‘Greenhouse Gas Protocol’? [2016]

#61. Which of the following statements is/are correct? [2016] Proper design and effective implementation of UN-REDD+ Programme can significantly contribute to 1. protection of biodiversity 2. resilience of forest ecosystems 3. poverty reduction Select the correct answer using the code given below.

#62. With reference to an initiative called ‘The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)’, which of the following statements is/are correct? [2016] 1. It is an initiative hosted by UNEP, IMF and World Economic Forum. 2. It is a global initiative that focuses on drawing attention to the economic benefits of biodiversity. 3. It presents an approach that can help decision-makers recognize, demonstrate and capture the value of ecosystems and biodiversity. Select the correct answer using the code given below.

#63. Consider the following pairs : [2016] Terms sometimes seen in the news Their origin 1. Annex—I Countries Cartagena Protocol 2. Certified Emissions Reductions Nagoya Protocol 3. Clean Development Mechanism Kyoto Protocol Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

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