In an effort to obtain monoclonal antibody doses for containing the Nipah virus outbreak in Kerala, India has contacted Australia. The monoclonal antibody has been given to 14 people worldwide after passing phase one studies satisfactorily.

Why use it for Nipah?

  • Symptom alleviation is the only available treatment for Nipah virus infection at this time.
  • The virus poses a serious concern due to its high fatality rate, which ranges from 40% to 75%.
  • Comparatively, the case fatality ratio (CFR) maintained at about 3% even at the height of the Covid-19 pandemic.

What are Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs)?

  • Therapeutic proteins known as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have revolutionized medicine and healthcare. •
  • They have a wide range of uses, including treating illnesses, identifying disorders, and carrying out scientific studies.

Structure of mAbs

  • Proteins known as monoclonal antibodies are created by a specific type of immune cell called a B cell.
  • They are known as “monoclonal” because they have a single, cloned parent cell as their source.
  • The Y-shaped structure of these antibodies is unique and is made up of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains.
  • The antibody’s variable region precisely binds to a particular antigen. Applications of Monoclonal Antibodies.
  • There are several uses for monoclonal antibodies in science, medicine, and diagnostics:
    MAbs are used to treat a wide range of illnesses, such as cancer, autoimmune conditions, infectious infections, and more.
  • They help identify particular molecules like antigens or antibodies in diagnostic procedures like ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).
  • mAbs are tools used by scientists to examine and influence biological processes. They are essential tools in the study of cell biology and molecular biology and can be marked with fluorescent markers for imaging.
  • PET (positron emission tomography) scans, which are a type of diagnostic imaging, can be performed using monoclonal antibodies that have been labelled with radioactive isotopes or fluorescent markers.
  • In order to reduce harm to good cells during cancer treatment, they can target particular chemicals on cancer cells.

Challenges and Advancements

  • Monoclonal antibodies can have drawbacks despite their considerable advantages, such as high production costs and the possibility of immunological reactions.
  • Technology advancements have solved some of these issues, such as the creation of humanized antibodies (antibodies incorporating human components to lessen immunological reactivity).

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