Modern Irrigation Techniques: Pioneering Water Conservation in Agriculture

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What are the modern techniques of irrigation that help in water conservation? (HPAS Mains Question Paper 2022 – GS 3, Q.10)

Irrigation techniques have become increasingly important in promoting sustainable water use and increasing agricultural productivity. 

Some modern irrigation techniques used in India to conserve water are as follows:

  • Drip irrigation is widely used in India for crops such as cotton, bananas, vegetables, and horticulture crops. It aids in the reduction of water loss due to evaporation and runoff, as well as the improvement of water use efficiency.
  • Sprinkler irrigation is widely used in India for crops such as wheat, maize, and soybean. This technique aids in the even distribution of water and the reduction of water loss due to evaporation.
  • Micro-Irrigation: For crops such as fruits and vegetables, micro-irrigation is becoming increasingly popular in India. This method directs water to the root zone of plants, reducing water loss due to evaporation and deep percolation.
  • Rainwater harvesting is a traditional technique that is gaining popularity in India to recharge groundwater and increase water availability for irrigation.
  • Solar pumping is becoming increasingly popular in India for irrigation because it provides a sustainable and cost-effective way to pump water without the use of fossil fuels.
  • Sensor-based irrigation is a modern technique that uses sensors to measure soil moisture, crop growth, and other variables. This information is used to optimize irrigation and reduce water consumption while increasing crop yields.

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