Shimla District

Notes, Himachal

District headquartersShimla
Formation of District ShimlaThe British District  1816 AD
Reorganization as District1966 AD and 1972 AD
Population density159 (in 2011)
Literacy rate83.64% (2011)
Total area5,131 square kilometers (9.22%)
Total Population8,14,010 (11.86%,2011)
Sex Ratio915 (in 2011)
Decade Growth Rate12.67% (2011)
Total Villages2914 (Inhabited Village- 2520)
Gram panchayats412
Sub Tehsils10
Assembly Area (विधानसभा क्षेत्र)8
Development Section (विकासखण्ड) 12
Child sex ratio925 (in 2011)
Highest apple-producing district of the stateShimla
The father of Congress, the oldest party in India,
A.O. Hume’s building in Shimla
Rothney Castle
Governor’s official residence in ShimlaBarnes court
Chief Minister’s official residence in ShimlaOak over
The basis for naming the city of ShimlaShyamala Devi Temple (Kali Bari Temple)

Geography of Shimla

The geographical location of Shimla

Shimla district is situated to the southeast of Himachal Pradesh. It is situated between 30° 45′ to 31° 44′ North Latitude and 77° 0′ to 78° 19′ East Longitude. Kinnaur and Uttarakhand to the east of Shimla, Sirmaur to the south, Uttarakhand to the southeast, Kullu and Mandi to the north, and Solan district to the west.

Mountains and Peaks of Shimla

7 Hills of Shimla city 

Shimla Seven Hills Map
  1. Jakhu hill
  2. Bantony Hill
  3. Inveram Hill
  4. Prospect hill
  5. Observatory hill
  6. Summer hill
  7. Elysium hill 

These hills are located in Shimla city, with Jakhu being the highest hill.

Other peaks of Shimla district (Tehsil wise)

  • Jakhu Peak of Shimla city
  • Siyah Peak of Chail
  • Churdhar of Chaupal Tehsil
  • Chancel Peak of Rohru Tehsil
  • Shali Peak of Sunni Tehsil 
  • Hatu Peak of Kumharsen Tehsil

These are famous peaks of the Shimla District.

Rivers in Shimla District

Sutlej, Giri, and Pabbar are the major rivers in Shimla district.

1. Sutlej River 

  • The Satluj river enters the Shimla district from Bhadal and forms the border with Aani in Nirmand and Karsog in Mandi districts. Sutlej river has tributaries in Shimla district – Nogali, Manchhad, Baihra, Khekhar, Chamda, and Sawera.

2. Giri River

  • Giri river originates from Kupar peak Jubbal Asani is the major tributary of the Giri river in the Shimla district.

3. Pabbar River

  • The Pabbar River originates from Chandranahan Lake The Pabbar River joins the Toun River near Tuni in Uttarakhand. The major tributaries of the Pabbar river in Shimla district are Andhra, Pejor, Hatkoti and Shikari Lakes-Chandranahan, Tanujubal, and Gardkufae.

Lakes in Shimla District

  1. Chandernahan
  2. Tanu jubbar
  3. Gadkufar
  4. Kareli
  5. Bandosar

History of Shimla

Since ancient times Shimla was also known by the names of Khash Desh, Kulind Desh, Himalaya Desh, Janandhar Khand, etc. Here the emperors like Kushan, Maurya, Gupta, Mukhri, etc. had established their power.

Bushahr is the largest, and Ratesh (2 sq mile) is the smallest princely state among the Shimla hill states. 

Following is the description of the hill states of the Shimla district –

1. Balsan

  • Balsan princely state was founded in the 12th century by “Alak Singh”, a Rathore descendant AD. Ancely state of Sirmaur. This princely state was the fief of the Sirmaur princely state before 1805 and at the time of the Gorkha invasion (in 1805 AD) it was the estate of the princely state of Kumarsen handeas ruled by Jog Raj Singh, Jograj Singh assisted the British government in the Gorkha war and Joged over the Nagan fort to David Ochterlory.
    The independent treaty was conferred on Thakur Lograj Singh, the ruler of Balsan in 1815 AD. The Balsan princely state supported the British government in the Revolt of 1857 and many European citizens took refuge in it Jograj, the ruler of Balsan, was given the title of “Khilar” and “Rana” by the British government in 1858 AD. Balsan princely state was ranked 11th among Shimla hill states. The last Rana of Balsan principality was Ran Bhadur Singh. “History of Balsan State” is a book written by him. Currently, Balsan is a part of Theog Tehsil.

2. Bhajji

  • Bhajji princely state was founded by “Charu”, a descendant of Kutlehar princely state, who later changed his name to Udaypal Sohanpal, the 20th generation of Charu, founded the Sunni city and shifted the Sunni from Bhajji, the capital of the princely state of Bhajji. The princely state of Bhajji was occupied by the Gorkhas from 1803 to 1815 AD. After the removal of the Gorkhas in 1815, the British government granted an independent treaty to Rana Rudrapal Rana Rudrapal renounced the throne in 1842 AD and started living in Haridwar Ashram. The last ruler of the princely state of Bhajji was Rana Ramchandra Pal. Bhaji was merged into the (Mahasu) Himachal Pradesh in 1948 by making it a tehsil. Presently Bhajji is a part of Sunni Tehsil.

3. Koti

  • Koti princely state was founded by Chandra’, brother of Charu, a descendant of Kutlehar princely state. Koti was the capital of the princely state, which was later transferred by Tarachand Thakur to Kyar Koti.
  • The princely state of Koti was annexed by the Gorkhas in 1809 AD) In 1815 AD.
  • The princely state of Koti again became the estate of Keonthal Harichand helped the British in 1857 AD, in return for which he was given the title of “Rana’. Koti princely state became part of Kusumpati tehsil in 1948 (Mahasu district) in HP.

4. Darkoti

  • Darkoti princely state was founded by Durga Chand, who came from Marwar (Jaipur), The Darkoti princely state currently falls in the Kot Khai tehsil. Darkoti was merged with Mahasu district in 1948 AD.

5. Throch

  • Throch princely state was founded by the prince ‘Kishan Singh of the Sisodia dynasty of Udaipur, who received the Throch (fief) jagir from the princely state of Sirmaur. Thakur Karma Singh was the ruler of Throch at the time of the Gorkha invasion in 1815 AD. In 1843 AD, the British Government removed his control from Throch and placed Ranjit Singh on the throne. 
  • Thakur Surat Singh, the last ruler of the princely state of Throch, received the permanent title of Rana”. The princely state of Tharoch was merged into Chaupal (Mahasu district) on April 15, 1948. 

6. Dhadhi

  • Dhadhi was the branch of Throch, which was later annexed by Bushahr. At the time of the Gorkha invasion, the Dhadhi was merged with Rabinagarh. In the year 1896, Rabinagarh and Dhadhi were made the jagirs of the princely state of Jubbal. In the year 1948, Dhadhu was founded in HP as part of Jubbal Tehsil (Mahasu District). 

7. Kumarsen

  • The princely state of Kumarsen was founded by Kirat Chand (Singh) who came from Gaya (Bihar). Ajmer Singh defeated Raja Man Singh Kullu and captured the ‘Sarai’ and ‘Shangr fort. At the time of the Gorkha invasion, Kumarsen was a het of the state of Bushahr. Rana Kehar Singh of Kumarsen took refuge in the princely state of Kullu at the time of the Gorkha invasion. Rana Pritam Chand helped the British Government in the siege of the Srigarh fort.
    Rana Vidyadhar Singh was the last ruler of Kumarsen, Kumarsen became part of Mahasu district on April 15, 1948. 

8. Khaneti

  • Khaneti princely state was founded by Sabir Chand, the son of Kirat Chand, the founder of the Kumarsen principality. After the Gorkhas (1815 AD), Khanetti became the fiefdom of the princely state of Bushahr which became independent in 1890 AD under the rule of Lal Chand Thakur.

9. Delath

  • The state of Delath was founded by Prithvi Singh, brother of Kirat Chand. It was also a fief of the state of Bushahr in 1815 AD. Delath was amalgamated into the Bushahr princely state on April 15, 1948, and made part of Mahasu district. Presently it is a part of Rampur Bushahr Tehsil. 

10. Dhami

  • Dhami princely state was founded by Govind Pal, a descendant of Prithviraj Chauhan who came to Dhami from Rajpura (Patiala). Raja Raj Singh of the Dhami princely state started replacing the ‘Pal’ with the Singh’suffix. Before the Gorkha invasion (1805 AD), Dhami was the estate of the princely state of Bilaspur (Kahlur). Dhami was occupied by the Gorkhas from 1805 to 1815. Rana Govardhan of Dhami supported the British in the British-Gorkha War (1815), after which the British government granted him an independent treaty. Rana Govardhan Singh also assisted the British in the Revolt of 1857 AD, The capital of the princely state of Dhami was Halog Dhami was merged into Mahasu district on April 15, 1948, as part of the Kusumpatti tehsil. 

11. Jubbal

  • The princely state of Jubbal was founded in 1195 AD by Karma Chand, son of Ugrachand and brother of Shubhansh Prakash. The princely state of Jubbal was initially the estate of the princely state of Sirmaur, which became independent after the Gorkha-British war.
  • Karma Chand established the capital of the princely state of Jubbal in Sunpur, which he later shifted to Purana Jubbal Rana Gaur Chand, the capital of the princely state of Jubbal, was transferred from Purana Jubbal to Devara (now Jubbal).
  • At the time of the Gorkha invasion, Purna Chand was the ruler of the princely state of Jubbal The state of Jubbal became an independent principality in 1815 AD. The British government conferred the title of ‘Rana’ to Rana Purnchand (in 1815 AD) and granted independent sanad. In the state of Jubbal, Tharoch was merged in 1841 AD, Ravin and Dhadhi were merged in 1896 AD.
  • After Purnachand Rana became the Karmachand ruler who was an art Tover as well as a harsh and cruel ruler. Bhaktchand, the ruler of the princely state of Jubbal, was conferred the title of “King” in 1918 AD.
  • The last ruler of the princely state of Jubbal was Digvijay Chand. Jubbal was merged into the Mahasu district on April 15, 1948,

12. Ravingarh (Ravin)

  • Ravinagath princely state was founded by Duni Chand, the third son of Sirmauri king Ugra Chand. Raja Veer Prakash of Simaur established the Ravigadh fort. The last ruler of the princely state of Ravingarh was Tikka Fateh Singh Ravingarh is currently part of the Jubbal Tehsil. 

13. Ratesh

  • Ratesh princely state was founded by Rai Singh, brother of Karma Prakash (Sirmaur). King Somar Prakash made Ratesh the capital of the princely state. Ratesh was the smallest hill state (2 sq mi). Ratesh was the manor of Sirmaur and Keonthal.
  • At the time of the Gorkha invasion, Kishan Singh (aged 7) escaped from Sirmaur and saved his life. Thakur Shamsher Singh was the last ruler of Ratesh. Lage Shangri-Shangri princely state was earlier under Bushahr which was occupied by Raja Man Singh of Kullu.
  • After Gorkha-British War (1815 AD) Vikram Singh became the ruler of Shangri. Shangri princely state was handed over to the princely state of Kullu in 1815 AD. Heera Singh has conferred the title of ‘Rai’ in 1887 AD. Rai Raghubir Singh was the last ruler of the princely state of Shangri Konthal.

14. Keonthal 

  • Keonthal princely state was founded in 1211 AD by Girisen, the younger brother of Birsen the founder of Suket princely state. In 1379 AD, the princely state of Keonthal came under Firoz Shah Tughlaq Koti, Ghand, Theog, Madhan, Mahlog, Kuthar, Kumhar, Dhami, Throch, Shangri. Kumarsen, Rizana, Khanetti Maili, Khalsi, Baghari, Dighayali, and Chat At the time of the Gorkha invasion (1809 AD), Rana Raghunath Sen fled to Suket. The 18 Thakurais of Keonthal separated in 1814 AD In the year 1815 AD, Ghund, Madhan, Ratesh, Theog, and Koti Thakuriya came under the state of Keonthal.
  • The present Shimla city was under the princely state Before 1800 AD, there were 18 Thakurias under the princely state of Keonthal of Keonthal which was received by the British government in 1830 AD in lieu of Ravin Thakurai. Keonthal was the capital of Junga the princely state Rana Sansar Sen of Keonthal helped the British in the Revolt of 1857 AD, in return for which he has conferred the title of King’ and ‘Khilat. Kusumpati was leased to the British government in 1884 AD by the king of Keonthal. Hitender Sen was the last ruler of the Keonthal princely state. 

15. Ghund

  • The princely state of Ghund was founded by Janjan Singh. Ghund princely state was the property of Keonathal princely state. Which again became the estate of the princely state of Keonthal in 1815 AD. Ranjit Singh was the last ruler of the princely state of Ghund.

16. Theog

  • The Theog state was founded by Jaischand (Jayachandra) of Kahlur. Theog State was the bet of Keonthal. Krishn Chand was the last ruler of the princely state of Theog. Theog princely state was the first princely state to be merged with India.

17. Madhan

  • Madhan princely state was founded by Bhup Singh, the second son of Raja Bhim Chand of Kahlur princely state and brother of Jais Chand (Theog) and Janjan Singh (Ghund) Madhan was the estate of the princely state of Keonthal, Narendra Singh was the last ruler of the princely state of Madhan. In 1948 AD, Madhan became a part of the Mahasu district. 

18. Kotkhai

  • Kotkhai princely state was founded by Ahimal Singh of Kumharsen Kotkhai was the fiefdom of Kumarsen, Kullu, and Bushahr. After the Gorkha-British War (1815) Kotkhai was given to Rana Ranjit Singh and the Kotgarh was kept by the British themselves.

19. Karangala

  • Karangala was founded by Sansar Chand of Kumharsen. The princely state of Karangala was a fief of the state of Bushahr. 

20. Sari

  • Sari princely state was established in 1195 AD by Mool Chand, the second son of Ugrachand (Sirmaur). Rohanu was under the entire princely state.
  • Purna Singh was the last ruler of Sari. In 1864 the British government gave it to the princely state of Bushahr as a view to the whole.

21. Bushahr State

The founder of the Bushahr princely state is believed to be Pradyumna, the son of Lord Krishna. He had come to marry his son Aniruddha to the daughter of King Banasura of Sonitpur (Sarah).
After the death of Banasur, Pradyumna established the princely state and made Kamru the capital of the princely state of Bushahr. Raja Chatar Singh (Chubal Singh), the 110th descendant of Pradyumna, shifted the capital from ‘Kamru’ to ‘Sarah’.

Raja Kehri Singh – Raja Kehri Singh was called “Ajanubahu” because he could stand upright and touch his knees. Aurangzeb honored Kehri Singh (1639-1696) in the title of “Chhatrapati”. Raja Kehari Singh started the Lavi Fair. Kehri Singh got the Hangrang Valley as a jagir from Tibet. He had retreated the territory of Tibet to the present limits by a treaty.

Raja Ram Singh (1767 AD 1799) – Raja Ram Singh, in 1776, subdued the fort of Dhankar of Spiti. Raja Ram Singh shifted the capital of Bushahr princely state from Sarahan to Rampur. Gorkha Invasion – At the time of the Gorkha invasion in 1810, most of the Bushahr state (except Kinnaur) was occupied by Gorkhas. After Raja Mahendra Singh drove out the Gorkhas, the British government granted an ‘independent sanad’ in 1815 AD. 

Raja Shamsher Singh –

Raja Sh.msher Singh did not support the British in the Revolt of 1857 AD
Raja Padam Singh – Raja Padam Singh was the last ruler of the state of Bushahr.


History of Shimla City 

Naming of Shimla

  • Shimla city is named after Shyamala Devi (blue woman), another Name of Bhagwati Kali. There was a small temple of Shyamala Devi on the Jakhu hill near Rothni castle which was shifted to Kali Bari in the British period. Shimla is named after Shyamala Devi. The British government gathered 28 big and small princely states around Shimla and formed the Shimla district in 1816 AD. 

Discovery of Shimla City

  • In 1817 AD, 2 officers of Scotland, Captain Patrick Gerard, and Alexander Gerard described the village of Shimla in their diary. The first assistant political agent, Lieutenant Roze of the princely state of Shimla, first discovered Shimla in 1819 and built a wooden house (cottage). Charles Pat Kennedy built the first pucca house in Shimla in 1822 AD, which came to be known as Kennedy House Lord Amherst was the first Governor-General to visit Shimla during his summer stay in Shimla in 1827 AD at Kennedy House. 
  • Lord Amherst used to say these words during this migration-I and the King of China rule half of mankind, yet we get breakfast. Lord Cambermeyer built the Cumbermeyer Bridge in 1828 AD. Bantik Castle, Oakland House, Snowdon, and Bainimore buildings were built in Shimla in 1828-29.

Events of 1830 to 1840 AD

  • In 1830 AD, Major Kennedy took 12 villages from the Raja of Keonathal to Phagli, Bamloi, Kanalog, Khalini, etc., and 4 villages of Kanthu, Chayog, and Badhog, etc. in Maharaja Patiala for the city of Shimla. Gulbuddin, the first mosque of Shimla city, was constructed in 1830 AD. Governor-General Lord William Bentick visited Shimla in 1832 AD. The first funfair was held at Annadale grounds in 1833 AD. Major Kennedy started potato cultivation in the Shimla Hill Region. The decision to attack Afghanistan was i ken in 1838 AD Auckland House. Colonel Rothney built Rothney Castle in 1838 AD. Lord Auckland was the first British ruler who bought land for his residence in Shimla in 1836 AD on which Auckland House was built.

The events of 1840-1850 AD

  • Colonel J. Bailu Buil Observatory House in 1844 AD later became Viceregal Lodge. Governor-General Lord Harding and Bishop Ray-Daniel Wilson of Calcutta laid the foundation stone of the Ridge Church of Christ Church, Shimla in 1804 AD, which was completed in 1857 AD. In 1844, the U-S-Club was formed.

The events of 1850-1860 AD

  • Lord Dalhousie stayed in Shimla and started the construction of the Hindustan Tibet Road in 1850-51 AD which was used for transport from 1860 AD. Major Briggs built the tunnel at Dhali in 1851 AD Shimla municipality was established in 1851-52 AD. Bishop Cotton School (B.C.S.) was founded in 1859 AD. The residence of Colonel Cathyang was completed in 1857 AD in Allergy. At the time of the Revolt of 1857 ADAL ord, William Hays was the Deputy Commissioner of Shimla and General Anson, Commander-in-Chief (Shimla) of the Army.

The events of 1860-1870 AD

  • Lord Canning was the first Viceroy to visit Shimla in 1860 AD. Due to the efforts of Lord John Lawrence, in 1864, Shimla became the summer capital of India. Lawrence Asylum was built in 1861 AD at Sanawar in Kasauli. Shimla was the summer capital of India from 1864 to 1947 AD Lord Elgin was the first Viceroy to stop at Peterhoff in 1863 AD.

The events of 1870-1880 AD

  • In 1871 AD, Shimla attained the status of a first-class municipality. Shimla was the summer headquarters of the Government of Punjab from 1871 to 1947 AD. Barnes Court became the residence of the Lieutenant Governor of Punjab in 1879 AD. In 1876, Lord Lytton stayed in Peterhoff with his wife. The proposal to build a ‘town hall’ on the ridge grounds came in 1880 AD. after which the design of Henry Irwin’ was prepared in 1888 AD as a Town Hall. The ‘underground reservoir tank’ in the ridge grounds of Shimla was built in 1880 AD. Alliances Bank of Shimla (First Bank of Shimla) was formed in 1874 AD.

The events of 1880-1900 AD

  • In 1882 AD, Lord Rippon laid the foundation of Rippon Hospital which was dedicated to the public by Lord Lytion in 1885 AD. A.O. Hume in Rothney Castle, Shimla, conceived the idea of establishing the Indian National Congress in 1883 AD The Gaiety Theater opened in 1887 AD on Queen Victoria’s birth anniversary, staging the first play “Time Will Tell”. The Charleston’s house opened in Shimla in 1880 AD. In 1888, the Viceregal building was built on victory during the time of Lord Dufferin.
  • Sir Durand Mortimore started the Durand Cup at Annadale ground in 1888 AD which was later taken from Shimla to Calcutta.
  • The Kalka-Shimla railway line was first opened for freight in 1891 AD. The chief engineer of this railway line was H.S. Harrington Bhalkhu Ram surveyed this railway line with a stick. The first train on this railway line was run in 1903 AD, which was flagged by Lord Curzon

The events of 1900-1920 AD

  • The Shimla bus stand was constructed in 1907. Electricity was delivered to Shimla from Chaba Power Station in 1913 AD. Lady Reading built the Lady Reading Hospital in 1914 AD, presently known as Kamla Nehru Hospital. Vitthalbhai Patel started the disobedience 15 movements in Shimla in 1914.
  • The Civil Secretariat was moved to Garton Castle in 1904 AD. In 1914, the decision to draw the McMahon Line (Indo-China Border Line) was taken in Shimla. St. Beed’s College was established in 1904 AD

.The events of 1920-1940 AD

  • The events of 1920 to 1940 AD-In 1921 AD, forced labor was abolished from Shimla district. Mahatma Gandhi, along with his wife Kasturba Gandhi, Lala Lajpät Rai, and Madan Mohan Malaviya, first came to Shimla on 11 May 1921 and stayed at Shanti Kutir (Summerhill).
  • He addressed a meeting of 15,000 people at Eidgah in Shimla Mahatma Gandhi came to Shimla for the second time in 1931 AD with Nehru, Patel, Dr. Ansari, and Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Lord Reading inaugurated the council chamber (present assembly) in 1925 AD. St. Edward’s School was built in 1925 AD.

The events of 1940-1950 AD

  • The events of 1940-1950 AD-Shimla Conference (Wavell Conference) in 1945 and Cabinet Mission Conference in 1946 were held at Shimla Shimla was the headquarters of the Burmese Government of Burma from 1942 AD to 1945 AD.
  • The Punjab High Court was located in Peter Holt in which the Burm case against Gandhijit’s killer Nathuram Godse was tried.
  • Peter Hoff was also the Governor’s House of Punjab in which a fire broke out in 1981 AD The Victory Tunnel was built in Shimla in 1945 AD which is broken out to commemorate the victory in the Second World War The Viceregal Lodge came to be known as Rashtrapati Niwas in 1947, which was renamed in 1965 AD as the Indian Institute of Higher Studies (TIAS). It was built by Lord Dufferin.

The events of post-1950 AD

  • Post-1950 events Shimla was the summer capital of Punjab until 1953 Akashwani Shimla was established in 1955 AD Shimla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in 1972 AD (in Barnes Court and Allergy).
  • The establishment of the Himachal Pradesh State Museum occurred in 1974 Snowdon Hospital was renamed IGMC (Indira Gandhi Medical College) in 1985 AD. Rippon Hospital was renamed Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital in 1990 AD Barnes Court became the official residence of the Governor of Himachal Pradesh in 1992. Gorton Castle houses the current Accountant General (Accountant General).
  • The High Court is located in Ravens Wood Ball Singham is the official residence of the Deputy Commissioner of Shimla, Oakover is the Chief Minister’s official residence. Rothney Castle was the residence of the King of A.O. Hume and Bushahr.
  • The Himachal Pradesh Secretariat is located in Allergy and Armadale. Lord Kitchener died during the construction of the Dhali (Sanjauli) tunnel. Peterhoff is currently the state guest house of the Himachal Pradesh government. The city of Shimla was merged with Himachal Pradesh on November 1, 1966, and since then (1966) it is the capital of the district

Temple in Shimla District

  • Bhimakali Temple (Sarahan) 
  • Mahishasuramardini Temple (Hatkoti) 
  • Surya Temple (Neerath) 
  • Taradevi Temple 
  • Sankat Mochan Temple
  • Jakhu Temple (dedicated to Hanuman)
  • Kalibadi Temple 

Formation of Mahasu and Shimla Districts

  • On April 15, 1948, District Mahasu was formed by merging 26 hill princely states and Thakuris. Sanjauli was merged with Punjab in 1950 AD, instead of Kotkhai Korgarh and Bharoli.
  • District Mahasu was abolished and Shimla district was created in September 1972. Shimla city. Sanjauli, Kandaghat, etc. were merged on 01 November 1966 in H.P, after which Mahasu and Shimla areas were reorganized in 1972 to form Shimla and Solan districts

Horticulture in Shimla District

  • The first garden of apples was planted in Mashobra, Shimla in 1887 AD In 1918 AD, Samuel Evans stocks planted an American variety of apples in Kotgarh, Shimla district. Alexander Coats, the British variety of apples, was first introduced in the Shimla district.

Famous Personalities of Shimla District

(1) Thakur Ramlal 

Thakur Ramlal became the second Chief Minister of HP in 1977 AD. He became the Governor of Andhra Pradesh in 1983 AD. He is the only Himachali to be both Governor and Chief Minister. 

(2) Virbhadra Singh

Virbhadra Singh became the Chief Minister for the first time in 1983 AD. He has become the Chief Minister of the H.P. 6 times.

The economy of Shimla District

  • Sheep Breeding Center is established at Jury in Shimla District, which was established in 1965 AD. Andhra Hydroelectric Project, Savada-Kuddu Hydroelectric Project is located in Shimla.

Demographic Statistics

  • The population of Shimla district increased from 2.30,144 in 1901 AD to 2,86,111 in 1951 AD. The population of Shimla district increased from 4,19,844 in the year 1971 AD to 8,14,010 in 2011 Between 1901 and 1911 AD. Shimla district recorded a decline in population (-2.80%) while the highest (22.96%) increase was recorded in the population between 1961 and 1971. The sex ratio of Shimla district was recorded as 853 in 1901 AD, 875 in 1951 AD, 869 in 1971 AD, and 915 in 2011 AD. 
  • The sex ratio in the Shimla district was recorded as the minimum (842) in 1921 and maximum (915) in 2011. Shimla district had a population of 26.13% Scheduled Castes and 0.57% Scheduled Tribes in 2001. In 2011 in Shimla district 611,884 (75.23%) population was rural and 201,500 (2477) population was urban. There are 8 assembly constituencies, 10 development blocks, 363-gram panchayats, 2520 Populated villages in Shimla district Shimla district had an 83.64% literacy rate, 925 infant population ratio, 12.07% (2001-2011) population growth rate in 2011.

Location of Shimla District

  • Shimla district is home to the most urban and least rural population Shimla district is in third place in the total village and Populated village. 
  • Maximum Municipal Councils and Nagar Panchayats are located in the Shimla district. 
  • Shimla district is sixth in the area and third in population. 
  • Shimla district is eighth in 2011 in population density and fifth in decadal population growth rate. 
  • Shumla district had the highest scheduled caste population (1,88,787) in 2001 after Kangra and Mandi. 
  • There are 5103 km long roads in Shimla district and there is a maximum length of roads after Kangra. 
  • Shimla district is eighth in the sex ratio (2011) and sixth in the Infant Sex Ratio (2011) Shimla district has the most forested area (2384 sq km after Chamba, 
  • In Shimla district, 46 64% of the total forest area is covered by forests and it is second after Sirmaur.
  • Shimla district is the largest potato-growing district. 
  • Shimla district produces the maximum number of apples, cherries, and almonds, 
  • Shimla district is second in the production of pear and kiwi.

Customs and Traditions in Shimla District

Shimla rests on the spirit of Vedic rites. Some special traditions of marriage exist here. Polyandry has also been practiced in some parts of the region. Apart from normal marriage, customs of marriage like Har, Rit, Jajda, Gadar, Saterra, Jhata, etc. have been prevalent here. 

Costume In Shimla District

it is customary to wear different types of traditional clothes in the century and in the summer. Woolen clothes are generally worn in winters.

The cloths worn by men – Topi, Ambu topi, Kishdar topi, Bushhari cap, muffler, shirt, basket, kurta, sweater, glove, pyjama, goncha, suthan, loiya, choga, pani, khurshe, liya, panthe etc.

The clothes worn by women – dhatu, kameez, jaga, sadri, achkan, coat, koti, regatta, basket, gachi, pajama, garara, salwar, suthani, pani etc.

Jewelry in Shimla District

Men’s jewelry – nanti, drotu, thread, jeeri, cauldron, dandi, chain, bracelet, ring etc.

Women’s ornaments – Chalk, Tika, Kanbale, Kantali, Bali, Kante, Mugdi, Dandi, Tungal, Bragar, Murki, Tops, Tili, Nether, Kathi, Necklace, Dosru, Chandan necklace, Hansli, Jantar, Bangles, Hazardana, Dastaband, Patha-mudi, ring, nettle, pajeb, poldi etc.


The dialects spoken in Shimla are Kyonthali, Baghati, Hinduri, Barari, Shorachali, Kirani, Kochi, Siraji, Bishau, Bushhari etc.

Folk Songs and Folk Dances

The folk songs and folk dances of Shimla include Nati, Mala, Munjra, Chitku (quick), Birsu, Thoda, Hudak, etc.

Shimla Helipad

The helipad (heliport) on the Sanjauli-Dhali bypass was launched in Shimla in December 2021. People no longer have to go to Jubbarhatti Airport, about 25 km from the capital, to go to Chandigarh, Kullu, or Dharamsala by Pawan Hans’s heli taxi.

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