- Discrimination in the labour market occurs when people with similar abilities are treated differently due to their identity or social backgrounds. So far, very few attempts have been made in India to quantify the extent of discrimination and its impact on the lives of marginalised communities.
- Oxfam India conducted an extensive analysis of government data from 2004 to 2020 to better understand inequality and discrimination in access to jobs, income, health, and agricultural credits across the country.
- The analysis was done through a statistical method called ‘decomposition’ to understand differential outcomes in employment, wages, health, and access to agricultural credit among various social groups. This has helped us to quantify discrimination faced by marginalised communities from 2004-05 to 2019-20.
- Despite the same educational qualification and work experience as men, women in India, will be discriminated in the labour market due to societal and employers’ prejudices. The report finds that discrimination causes 100 percent of employment inequality faced by women in rural areas in the labour market and 98 percent in urban areas.
- The findings of the Oxfam India indicate discrimination as a driving factor behind low Female Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) in the country. As per the Union Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation (MoSPI), FLFPR in India was only 25.1 percent in 2020-21 for urban and rural women.
- Earning Gap between Males & Females: The earning gaps are large, both in rural and urban areas for casual workers ranging between 50% and 70%. The range is low for regular workers, with earnings of men exceeding those of women by 20 and 60%.
- In the case of the self-employed, the disparity is much higher, with men earning 4 to 5 times that of women.
Oxfam India releases India Discrimination Report – 2022
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