- GOC refers to the equatorward transport of cold, deep waters and poleward transport of warm, near-surface waters.
- It is responsible for the transport of carbon and heat among ocean basins and between the ocean and the atmosphere.
- GOC is a system of two connected overturning cells:-
- The upper cell is linked to the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and its shallower return flow to form Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).
- The lower cell (referred to as Southern Ocean Meridional Overturning Circulation) is associated with the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AMM) and its return flow as Pacific Deep Water (PDW).
- Studies have indicated that tectonically driven changes in ocean gateways such as the closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS), since the late Miocene period, had impacted GOC.
New Studies Conducted To Understand Modern Form Of Global Overturning Circulation
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