The global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) is produced by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative.
MPI 2021 examined the level and composition of multidimensional poverty across 109 countries covering 5.9 billion people. It also presents an ethnicity/race/caste disaggregation for 41 countries with available information.
It measures poverty by considering various deprivations experienced by people in their daily lives, including poor health, insufficient education and a low standard of living. It uses three dimensions and ten indicators:
- 1.3 billion people are multidimensionally poor.
- About half (644 million) are children under age 18.
- Nearly 85 percent live in Sub-Saharan Africa (556 million) or South Asia (532 million).
- More than 67 percent live in middle-income countries.
- Close to 12% of the population live in female-headed households.
- 5 out of 6 multidimensionally poor people are from lower tribes or castes; 9.4% of the Scheduled Tribe 33.3% of the Scheduled Class and 27.2% of the Other Backward Classes group lives in multidimensional poverty.